Escribir, Leer y Aprender en La Universidad – Paula Carlino-subry2 – Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. Escribir, Leer y Escribir en la Universidad: Una Introduccion a la Alfabetizacion Paula Carlino ESCRIBIR, LEER Y APRENDER EN LA UNIVERSIDAD: UNA. Escribir, leer y aprender en la universidad: Una introduccion a la alfabetizacion academica (Spanish) Paperback – Import, 31 Dec by Paula Carlino.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. This qualitative study explores the uses of reading and note-taking in two pre-service teacher training Social Sciences courses.

Data analysis of in-depth interviews with professors and students, class observations and course materials suggested two polar teaching styles according to how bibliography was included in the course and the presence or absence of dialogicality. In one course, the professor assumed that students should read texts on their own prerogative.

As monological lectures were given, they mostly studied from their class-notes. In the other course, the professor held class discussions based on readings that took place in and outside the classroom. According to students, this prompted them to use their class-notes to re-signify and consider the relevance of the information read, escrkbir talking, reading, and note- taking contextualizing each other.

Introduction How do students use class-notes when they study for their courses? How do they relate these spontaneous writings to the bibliography they have to read? Is there any relationship between how their teachers include readings in their instructional practices and how students read and universiadd their class-notes? These questions arose as a central issue in an exploratory study regarding how future high school Social Sciences teachers read and take notes to learn subject matter and why they do it in certain ways.

This exploration was conducted in two teacher education courses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the following sections we review findings that relate reading and writing practices to thinking and learning processes as well as studies on note-taking. Then, we analyze reading and note-taking in subject area courses offered to History and Geography pre-service teachers in two institutions. Finally, we discuss our findings and offer suggestions for further research.

Such conceptualizations usually lead to the idea that these skills can be later transferred to any activity and context. This common way of thinking about reading and writing overlooks the diverse, situated and complex socio-cognitive processes that take place when people read and write Olson,because it mainly focuses on the communicative aspects of literacy practices. Furthermore, this usual idea of reading and writing does not take into account what Wells calls the epistemic level of literacy.

According to the author, the use of written language entails different degrees of cognitive activity, making the epistemic level a central role in teaching and learning. Uhiversidad epistemic use of reading and writing opposes what Bereiter and Scardamalia have called universidd knowledge- telling model: Accordingly, only those reading and writing tasks that entail analysis, comparison, and critical reflection of ideas actually can promote the elaboration of more complex knowledge Carter, et al.

However, as Wells a indicates, just relying on the type of reading or writing task does not guarantee that students will reach the epistemic level in their literacy practices. Indeed, the epistemic function of reading and writing needs to be taught and scaffolded, instead of simply being indicated. The teacher, as an expert reader and writer in a specific subject area, pauka students to progressively use reading and writing epistemically throughout assisted performance.

In order to promote this, teachers have to make text interpretation and production processes observable to students by talking about bibliography in class and engaging students in collaborative activities that make reading and writing practices explicit: And for this to happen, they need to participate jointly in reading and writing events with their teachers or more competent peers, in which these internal activities are externalized — and aprended made available for appropriation — in talk about the text.

Working with literacy as interwoven with disciplinary contents, according to the authors, can be a decisive factor to use literacy as an epistemic tool. Therefore, inquiry on the epistemic uses of reading and writing should go beyond what students do with the texts they read or write on their own, as well as the types of tasks teachers wn them to do.

In order to face this demanding task, students most commonly use two strategies. Some studies have shown that this writing practice encourages learning not only when they review their notes, but also while they are taking them as it is an activity that facilitates retention and promotes connecting segments of information Kiewra, a, b; Laidlaw, et al.

Whereas most of the paual research relates note-taking to examination-grades, recall of information and teaching guidelines, other studies centre their attention on how students use their notes when studying. In this line of inquiry, Hartley and Davies and Isaacs have shown how some students use their class-notes as a product while others use them as a process.


When students use notes as a product, they take them as information to be studied without any other type of processing. The results of this study show that the latter use of class-notes can help students to reconstruct and transform knowledge. Finally, the distinction unicersidad the use of class-notes as a product or process has recently been related by Espino and Miras with superficial or in-depth learning approaches taken by aorender education students.

The authors did not find enough evidence to prove a clear relationship between these two variables; however, their study highlights the need to take a closer look at note-taking practices in particular learning environments.

Therefore, research that takes situated practices into account has to analyze how different teaching styles cralino facilitate or not a use of class-notes as a process.

This distinction underlines that despite every text having a monological aspect, because it aims at establishing cultural meanings in a precise way, it cannot be considered as a passive container.

On the contrary, every text is an artifact that generates new interpretations and thoughts because it interacts with other texts and interpreters, in the same way that an utterance does in dialogical chains Bakhtin, According to the author, a dialogical style of teaching and a monological one can be conceived as two extremes of a univesidad.

Paula Carlino will give a conference on reading and writing with epistemic purposes.

A monological teaching style refers to instruction practices predominantly based on lectures; where there is little or no talk between teacher and students about texts. Instead, in a dialogical teaching style there is a maximum level of talk about texts produced or read between teacher and students, and interactions are based mainly on authentic questions, with no pre-fixed answers. Moreover, the lack of reading appears to be based on two complementary situations: On the contrary, a dialogical teaching style sets a different instructional scenario.

There is a maximum level of talk about texts and writing. As Dysthe shows, this style of teaching boosts learning through the dialogicality reached by reading and writing to talk reading and writing tasks to focus and prepare class discussions and talking to read and to write oral preparation of tasks that require reading and writing.

A dialogical teaching style then is coherent with conceiving reading as an operation centered on meaning construction, which requires an active role from students Lerner, ; Smith, and the assumption of a critical stance on texts Delpit, In addition, as Guthrie and Guthrie, Schafer, Wang, and Afflerbach have shown, students read more when their teachers prompt them in class to understand, compare, and give their opinion on the readings.

The dialogue held in the classroom brought to the surface the challenges that this text presented to newcomers in the discipline and provided the professor with the necessary information to decide how to intervene.

Therefore, students were made aware of the implicit debates that the text involved by talking about why the author cited other voices and whether these were in line with his argument or held opposite ideas. This type of intervention can help students that are less familiar with academic reading and writing to notice some important characteristics of Social Sciences texts. Altogether, these studies support the idea that talking to prepare for subsequent readings and reading to talk allow students and professors to externalize their thoughts, making explicit some of the cognitive activities involved in reading epistemically.

Therefore, through dialogicality, the epistemic function of literacy can be boosted. Despite the fact that a generalization of the results cannot be undertaken, these types of studies can give us tools to generate, reaffirm, or reformulate assumptions, theories, and hypothesis Stake, Our study took place in two public teacher education institutions located in Buenos Aires. When the study was designed, it was inferred that, due to the location of the institutions, the students would show different socioeconomic levels.

However, we found in the interviews and the observations that students assisting to both institutions did not show any differences in this regard. Therefore, this variable was not included in the analysis. Dropout rates in this teacher education system are quite high, with only one out of seven students graduating Aguerrondo, et al. In each institution, a course was chosen as a case, according to the following criteria: Data were gathered through semi-structured in-depth interviews, class observations, and course materials including syllabi, bibliographies, and reading guides were collected.

First, we interviewed both professors. The convenience sample was defined by asking each professor to point out one high- and one low-performance student according to their own criteria and course grades. All four of the students accepted to collaborate with the research.

Finally, to triangulate data sources, course materials were gathered.


The data collection process took place at the end of the second semester in both of these annual courses in order to ensure that professors could select students for the interviews based farlino their high or low course performance, and to allow students to express their ideas about the uses of reading and writing after attending class for an extended period of time.

Class observations and interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. The transcriptions were completed with field research notes based on the observed non-verbal behavior. The analysis was done taking into account the broad objective of exploratory studies: Analysis of Results In the data analyzed, the way students used their class notes and the amount and use of readings they did seemed to be related to how teachers included disciplinary texts in their classes. This factor was identified by students as a reason for their small amount of reading and paila they used their class-notes as a final material to study.

Dialogicality in text-centered discussions prompted students to read more and to relate what they read with their class-notes. In the following sections, we analyze how teaching styles, reading practices, and the use of class-notes are related in a particular manner in each case. The course syllabus included four thematic units, two of them related to Geography contents, and the rest of them to History.

The data analyzed below were gathered during the last History unit of the syllabus: Julia assumed that the role of reading in her class was the following: General bibliography is there to be consulted at any point aprenser the year. Then, I normally explain. Students, based on what they read in the bibliography, ask questions, ask for clarification, we confront ideas, or we discuss them. As shown in the previous excerpt, Julia expected students to read the bibliography mainly on their own initiative.

She also defined reading as something that will let students appreciate different perspectives on the content, which at the time would allow avoiding dogmatic postures through class discussion and confrontation of different interpretations: What lewr the purpose of having students reading all these different authors, all these different perspectives that you told me about?

I think that, in first place, since no one has the science or the knowledge, the monopoly of the truth, since no one knows everything; it is good h different types of knowledge and focuses complement each other. And, perhaps, although in some aspects I could dissent with the leerr, I can also find some observations of the author that are pertinent, that I am not actually that far away from what the author says as I thought.

Escribir, Leer y Escribir en la Universidad : Una Introduccion a la Alfabetizacion Academica

If them escrbir students], if you [as a teacher], on the one hand, live it with certain openness and try to show them that, well, in that way we are helping students not to be so dogmatic. Ellipsis between brackets indicates parts of the recording that could not be transcribed due to ambient noise or superposition of voices.

Julia posited that disciplinary texts were a source of information and, besides, she referred to them as devices that allowed students to contrast and reflect on different perspectives on what was being studied.

Indeed, these students stated that throughout the whole year, they only read univerzidad 50 and 60 pages out of the that appeared as compulsory reading in the course syllabus which also included three other reference books.

Additionally, out of the 50 yy 60 pages that the students declared to have read, they affirmed to have studied only between 20 and 30 pages. Julia had to take both periods together added up to about two months without classes. Yet, according to both students, during the rest of the year they did not qprender the bibliography either.

Therefore, the lack of reading could not be directly attributed to class cancelation but mostly to what the following universidxd of interviews illustrate: Sara also mentioned similar reasons when she explained why she did not read the material specified as compulsory reading in the syllabus: Both students maintained that they did not need to read the bibliography because they used their class-notes to study.

Julia seemed to be perceived by Amanda ;aula Sara as the expert teacher in the subject and, linked to that, as a privileged source of knowledge. And that, eh…, which one would be the source of that information that the professor gives you? How did you know that what she said was the only possible interpretation? As if you were in love with her teaching?